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Background

In The Art of War, Sun Tzu proclaims:

"Know yourself, know your enemy; hundred battles, hundred won.
He who knows the other side (the enemy) and knows himself will not be defeated in a hundred battles.
He who does not know the other side (the enemy) but knows himself will have an even chance of victory or defeat.
He who does not know the other side (the enemy) and himself is bound to be defeated in every battle." ~ Sun Zi1

In war, it is critical to realize both where the armed forces are strong and where they are weak. The same principle can be applied in today's business management. Knowing "oneself" is crucial since it allows the company to learn from the historical patterns, to adapt, to change and to improve for the future. Knowing "others" not only help to leverage one's capability to compete in the global environment but also enhances one's sustainable competitive advantage. Over times, research works dedicated by both industry practitioners and academic researchers have been able to identify useful strategies for better organizational performance, at the same time, to generate and further develop ideas and concepts for future study.